David Onley explains prorogation decision", "The Empire Club of Canada Speeches 1970–1971", "The Governor General – the evolution of Canada's oldest public institution", "Martin Government Removes Queen From Diplomatic Documents", "Parliament > Officers and Officials of Parliament > Procedural Officers and Senior Officials > Senate", "Michael Ignatieff's timely warning on the politics of fascism", "Calgary courtroom home to special exhibit", "Politics and Government > By Executive Decree > The Governor General", "The Office > Annual Reports > 2004–2005 > Report on Performance", "Canada Remembers > Memorials to Canadians' Achievements and Sacrifices > First World War Memorials in Europe > Vimy Memorial > The Battle of Vimy Ridge > The Canadian National Vimy Memorial – Fast Facts", "Past events (Court Circular) > Search the Court Circular > 13 May 1998", "Remembering Vimy – 90th Anniversary Celebrations on CTV, April 9", "Royal Respect for Canada's Vimy Heroes, Queen of Canada Rededicates Memorial on French Soil", "Prince Charles, Clarkson honour D-Day fallen", "Past events (Court Circular) > Search the Court Circular > 14 April 2007", "Another Member of the Canadian Royal Family Performs Duties Abroad", "Past events (Court Circular) > Search the Court Circular > 7–8 June 2008", "2010 Royal Tour > Frequently Asked Questions > Who pays for Royal Tours of Canada? Canada, meanwhile, is the country of the counter-revolution, which has willingly and successfully retained this source of legitimacy. Since her accession to the Throne, Her Majesty has completed more royal tours in Canada than to any other Commonwealth country. Elizabeth II was crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953 and made history by becoming the first monarch to be crowned Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of Canada. [10] The queen of Canada (and head of state) has been Elizabeth II since 6 February 1952. There are three household regiments specifically attached to the Royal Household—the Governor General's Foot Guards, the Governor General's Horse Guards, and the Canadian Grenadier Guards. [200] It also includes the creation of dynastic and national honours,[201] though only the latter are established on official ministerial advice. She has dedicated her life to public service and continues to serve Canada and Canadians. The Crown does not transfer ownership to itself. "[345] He later iterated: "the public's attention span on the constitutional intricacies of the monarchy is clinically short". They have four children: After her father's death, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953. Celebrations took place to mark Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee in 2012,[336][337] the first such event in Canada since that for Victoria in 1897. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is Queen of Canada. However, the Queen is the only member of the royal family with any constitutional role. [116], Through the 1960s and 1970s, the rise of Quebec nationalism and changes in Canadian identity created an atmosphere where the purpose and role of the monarchy came into question. She acceded to the throne following the death of her father, George VI, … [273][274] Beyond legalities, members of the Royal Family have, on occasion, been said by the media and non-governmental organisations to be Canadian,[n 23] have declared themselves to be Canadian,[n 24] and some past members have lived in Canada for extended periods as viceroy or for other reasons. The royal prerogative also extends to foreign affairs, including the ratification of treaties, alliances, international agreements, and declarations of war,[196] the accreditation of Canadian high commissioners and ambassadors and receipt of similar diplomats from foreign states,[197][198] and the issuance of Canadian passports,[199] which remain the sovereign's property. Succession is governed by statutes, such as the Bill of Rights 1689, the Act of Settlement 1701, and the Acts of Union 1707. Barbara Yaffe, "Ditching royals is easy, expert says In 2011, Canada committed to the Perth Agreement with the other Commonwealth realms, which proposed changes to the rules governing succession to remove male preference and removal of disqualification arising from marriage to a Roman Catholic. As territories fall under the federal jurisdiction, they each have a commissioner, rather than a lieutenant governor, who represents the federal Crown-in-Council directly. Canada has been Independant from Britain since 1867 and is still today, so technically speaking, Canada doesn't have a ruling sovereign queen. CAIRO - 19 November 2020: Egyptian Ambassador to Canada Ahmed Abu Zeid discussed on Wednesday with head of the Canadian Museum of History Caroline Dromaguet and the museum’s Acting Director General Chantal Amyot a cooperation plan between the Canadian museum and the Egyptian embassy in the coming stage in case of coronavirus remission. Technically speaking, Queen Elizabeth is the Sovereign of the parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy of Canada. [74] The body of the reigning sovereign thus holds two distinct personas in constant coexistence: that of a natural-born human being and that of the state as accorded to him or her through law; the Crown and the monarch are "conceptually divisible but legally indivisible ... [t]he office cannot exist without the office-holder",[n 12][59] so, even in private, the monarch is always "on duty". While the power for these acts stems from the Canadian people through the constitutional conventions of democracy,[29] executive authority remains vested in the Crown and is only entrusted by the sovereign to the government on behalf of the people. Her Majesty The Queen marks the 150th anniversary of Confederation in 2017 by wearing the Maple Leaf Brooch: Photo credit and copyright: © 2017 Ian Leslie Macdonald. [163][170], In a poll conducted by Ipsos-Reid following the first prorogation of the 40th parliament on 4 December 2008, it was found that 42% of the sample group thought the prime minister was head of state, while 33% felt it was the governor general. "[322] Though the first French and British colonizers of Canada interpreted the hereditary nature of some indigenous North American chieftainships as a form of monarchy,[323][324][325] it is generally accepted that Canada has been a territory of a monarch or a monarchy in its own right only since the establishment of colony of Canada in the early 16th century;[47] according to historian Jacques Monet, the Canadian Crown is one of the few that have survived through uninterrupted succession since before its inception.[55]. On September 9, 2015, a new milestone was reached. [30] The monarchy has thus been described as the underlying principle of Canada's institutional unity and the monarch as a "guardian of constitutional freedoms"[48][141] whose "job is to ensure that the political process remains intact and is allowed to function. Edward was the first member of the royal family to reside in Canada for a sustained period of time. Allegiance is given in reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath,[143] wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of ... Canada ... according to their respective laws and customs". That doesn’t include one-off costs like hosting the Queen and the Royal Family, minting special coins in honour of the Queen or printing special edition stamps. Known as the Queen of Creole, Chase - who died on Saturday aged 96 - fed Martin Luther King as he organised sit-ins with other civil rights activists. 1948), or, depending on how things go, her more popular and handsome grandson, Prince William (b. [354] Out of Canada's three most prominent political parties, neither the Liberal Party nor the Conservative Party are officially in favour of abolishing the monarchy (the Conservative Party cite support for constitutional monarchy as a founding principle in its policy declaration)[355] and the New Democratic Party has no official position on the role of the Crown. [179] Further, included in Canada's constitution are the various treaties between the Crown and Canadian First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples, who view these documents as agreements directly and only between themselves and the reigning monarch, illustrating the relationship between sovereign and aboriginals. [n 6] By the Interpretation Act of 2005, no incumbent appointee of the Crown is affected by the death of the monarch, nor are they required to take the Oath of Allegiance again,[89] and all references in legislation to previous monarchs, whether in the masculine (e.g. Ever since, she has been steadfast in keeping her promise — a promise valued by Canada and the entire Commonwealth. [319] Air transportation for the Royal Family is provided by the Royal Canadian Air Force 412 Transport Squadron. [99][100] The ruling was upheld by the Quebec Court of Appeal. [347] The position of prime minister has simultaneously undergone, with encouragement from its occupants,[347] what has been described as a "presidentialisation",[348][349] to the point that its incumbents publicly outshine the actual head of state. 1982). However, there has been no popular or official support for such a change. As such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians),[n 13] the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land), buildings and equipment (Crown held property),[138] state owned companies (Crown corporations), and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright). Her Majesty was the first child of King George VI (The Duke of York) and Queen Elizabeth. As a result, the Queen of Canada and Queen of the United Kingdom are legally distinct office holders, just as the Canadian Crown and British Crown are distinct offices. [111] Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, also has a Canadian private secretary and his wife,[318] Sophie, Countess of Wessex, a lady-in-waiting. The future Queen Victoria was the only child of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of King George III, and Princess Victoire of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1786–1861). The emergence of this arrangement paralleled the fruition of Canadian nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. During that time, the future queen learned French, which she speaks fluently. [145] By convention, the content of these communications and meetings remains confidential so as to protect the impartiality of the monarch and her representative. [n 21] Further, in addition to the five Canadian citizens in the Royal Family,[n 22] the sovereign is considered Canadian[270][271][272], and those among her relations who do not meet the requirements of Canadian citizenship law are considered Canadian[citation needed], which entitles them to Canadian consular assistance and the protection of the Queen's armed forces of Canada when they are in need of protection or aid outside of the Commonwealth realms,[259] as well as to substantive appointment to Canadian orders or receipt of Canadian decorations. "[161] There are also a few duties which must be specifically performed by, or bills that require assent by, the Queen.[71][194][195]. [151] This caused not only "precedence wars" at provincial events (where the governor general usurped the lieutenant governor's proper spot as most senior official in attendance)[166][167] and Governor General Adrienne Clarkson to accord herself precedence before the Queen at a national occasion,[168] but also constitutional issues by "unbalancing ... the federalist symmetry". [144], Though it has been argued that the term head of state is a republican one inapplicable in a constitutional monarchy such as Canada, where the monarch is the embodiment of the state and thus cannot be head of it,[133] the sovereign is regarded by official government sources,[44][145][146][147] judges,[148] constitutional scholars,[125][149] and pollsters as the head of state,[150] while the governor general and lieutenant governors are all only representatives of, and thus equally subordinate to, that figure. He spent the 1790s in Québec City and Halifax, where he helped improve British North American defences and became commander-in-chief of the British North American forces. ", As Peter Boyce put it: "The Crown as a concept cannot be disentangled from the person of the monarch, but standard reference to the Crown extends well beyond the Queen's person. [102], Constitutional scholar Phillippe Lagassé argues that as the Succession to the Throne Act, 2013, and court rulings upholding the law, section 41(a) of the Constitution Act, 1982, which requires a constitutional amendment passed with the unanimous consent of the provinces, applies only to the "office of the Queen", but not who holds that office, and that therefore "ending the principle of symmetry with the United Kingdom can be done with the general amending procedure, or even by Parliament alone under section 44 of the Constitution Act, 1982. Further, the official opposition is traditionally dubbed as Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition,[141][206][207] illustrating that, while its members are opposed to the incumbent government, they remain loyal to the sovereign (as personification of the state and its authority). Further, organizations will give commemorative gifts to members of the royal family to mark a visit or other important occasion. The monarch is at the apex of the Canadian order of precedence and, as the embodiment of the state, is also the focus of oaths of allegiance,[n 14][119][125][141][142] required of many of the aforementioned employees of the Crown, as well as by new citizens, as by the Oath of Citizenship. [59] Since then, the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and a separate character: the sovereign's role as monarch of Canada has been distinct from his or her position as monarch of any other realm,[n 3][20][59][60] including the United Kingdom. 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